Jamaican slaves gained some legal rights with the arrival of British colonial government. Their condition as "property" was changed to "servitude" and they could be transferred to other plantations if they were mistreated. They were also given the right to vote in local elections. Beginning in 1838, the British fully emancipated all slaves by granting them freedom. However, some were either killed or died of diseases, after which the British enslaved them again. It is estimated that after emancipation of slaves, there were already some 2 to 2.5 million Africans in Jamaica. These Africans mainly lived in ghettos called ‘Squatters Villages’. The population of Africans declined to 400,000 by 1950. In the early 1950s, the first mixed-race legislature was elected, the PNP (People's National Party). Its first major victory was the election of Arthur Wint as Prime Minister. He was followed by Alexander Bustamante, Hugh Shearer, Alexander Bustamante, Alexander Manning, Michael Manley and Oswald Grice.
The first marine reserves were made in Jamaica in 1977 by Minister Charles Hugh Smith. A change in Jamaican natural history that was observed from the early 19th century was the presence of sharks in Jamaican waters. There were so many sharks in waters off the coast of Jamaica that the fishermen took part in a shark derby and began to display and sell shark fins
Jamaica's first descent into chaos occurred after a battle between two political factions in 1934, resulting in violence, massacres, and deaths by hanging. Thousands of people were killed during this period. After the violence subsided in 1935, a government was dominated by progressive Jamaicans, whose goal was the reorganization of society into a single political party; the PNP. The PNP included many Jamaican descendants of slaves and indentured labourers from India, and they substantially influenced Jamaica's political life and society. The PNP's first leader was Edward Seaga. Unhappy with Seaga, the PNP split in 1969 to create the United National Party (UNP), led by Michael Manley. This party was based on the Black-Caribbean people and other racial groups. d2c66b5586